Tuesday, May 27, 2014



Purpose: The whole purpose and why we are doing this lab in the first place was to learn about the anatomy of different specimens. In this lab what concepts that were being tested i would assume was the idea of different specimens have different inner and outer parts that make them all different. For independent and dependent variables there were the specific inner organs that were outlined in guilds to find. Other than that there wasn't anything that we had to measure but more of the point of this lab was to observe the dissection process and demonstrate understanding.

Intro: In this lab we had to choose 4 out of the 6 specimens given to us to dissect and learn about the inner and outer parts and its functions. The specimens that we had to choose were the frog, starfish, clam, and perch which is a type of fish for people that don't know. In each specimen shown in this blog we will discuss the procedures we did and then explain the importance of body parts inside and outside of the specimen. Furthermore there will be videos and pictures of each specimen that will help walk through anyone that needs help with dissection of these certain specimens. Having said all of this let us begin with the frog which was the first specimen we dissected.

Methods: Our methods will be put into videos of breaking down the whole dissection. 

Frog (Chau):
Internal parts taken out 
First opening showing liver

part of the frogs mouth


Video Link to frog dissection


Starfish (Gunnar):
External Anatomy:

External anatomy (parts with definitions):

Dorsal/aboral fin: Primary arm.

Arms: Used for general movement.

Central disc: Activity center of the starfish. Contains the mouth.

Spines: Some used to absorb oxygen. Others are used to clean the surface of the skin.

Eyespots: Used to detect light and its general direction so they have some idea of where they are going.

Mouth: Used for eating.

Soft tube feet: Used for specific movement.

Ambulacral groove: Houses/Protects the soft tube feet

Internal anatomy:

Internal anatomy (parts with definitions):

Pyloric caeca: Long digestive glands that make enzymes to digest food in the stomach.

Gonads: Used for reproduction

Ring Canal: A circular canal in which filtered water enters through the madreporite and branches out into the radiated canals.

Lateral canal: Holds the soft tube feet in place.

Ossicles: Skeletal plates for protection.

Madreporite: Allows water to enter into the water vascular system

Incision Guide (for dissection):
(Some incisions are lined in blue and may be hard to see)

Starfish Dissection Video:

Video Link:


Clam (Luke):

External/Internal Diagram:

External Parts:

Dorsal Side: Back side. Contains Umbo and Hinge Ligament
      Umbo: Oldest part of the clam
      Hinge Ligament: Holds clam together

Ventral Side: Front/ Mouth of the clam

Siphon: Brings in water/food

Anterior/Posterior Sides: Right and left sides of the clam, respectively

Internal Parts:

Adductors: Hold Clam open/ Close Clam

Gill: Allows Clam access to oxygen for respiration

Foot: Muscle that the clam uses to move around and burrow

More Internal Parts:

Mantle: Soft tissue coating the inside of clam

Esophagus: Moves food to stomach

Stomach: Digests and breaks down food

Reproductive Gland: Clam uses this to produce offspring


In order to cut open the Clam, just cut the adductors on both sides. Marked below.



Perch (Derek)

Incision Guide Reference

   External Anatomy

   Internal Anatomy


Conclusion: Overall the lab was engaging as we got to experiment then actually apply our knowledge in teaching others about our dissections of different specimen. Each one of us had the chance to dissect and were fascinated at the type of organs and parts of each specimen compared to another. 

Thursday, March 6, 2014


Purpose:The purpose of the lab was to show the process of transformation. With that concepts we were testing was the the effects of ampicillian and the sugar arabinose had on the growth of the cells. The relationship between the dependent variables was that we measuring the growth of cells would differ depending which plates had the ampicillian which the pglo was resistant to. For the independent variable we had our control group as the plate with just broth and no ampicillian and the others will be the ones with the varied results. What were trying to find out the success of transforming the gene into the organism E-coli given the variables.

Introduction: The lab will be conducting a process which is known as genetic transformation caused by genes. Gene transformation will is basically inserting a trait from an organism to another. The trait that will be expressed is GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein). If the transformation is successful then the organism which is E-coli in this case will glow under ultraviolet light. For the gene to go off, the sugar arabinose is added to the cell. Cells that have transformed will grow on the plates that have lb/amp because the pglo is resistant to the antibiotic ampicillin.

Methods: During the lab, our group would carefully read out the measurements just in case to confirm, what we were doing was correct with the other lab partners.. We made sure that we recognized each plate and continued accordingly. In between tasks if we had the opportunity, we would answer the questions pertaining to the lab. It was easy to answer them because it was either still fresh in our minds or predictions about the lab. Of course we couldn't answer the end questions because we had to wait 24 hours to answer those. At the end to make sure that we were successful we went over the plates until it was covered in transformation. Overall the lab procedure was clear and simple and we adjusted to what was more convenient for us and that was to organize and break up the lab equally to be more efficient.


Graphs and Charts: (see above)

Discussion: The normal e. coli culture with no pGLO introduced had high e. coli growth on it, as would be expected; additionally, the normal culture that had been inteoduced to ampicillin had no growth due to ampicillin's role in stopping bacterial growth. These two are the control plates, so it's to be expected that they behaved the way they normally would. The transformation plates contained the most important data. With the pGLO introduced, its natural resistance to ampicillin was present, so those colonies of e. coli which were transformed by the pGLO managed to survive even with ampicillin present, resulting in a few surviving colonies. In the final culture, arabinose was added to the culture, and because arabinose stimulates the GFP to cause phosphorescence, the colonies found in that culture did glow under ultraviolet light.

Conclusion: There wasn't really a definite answer to the lab however, it was a success in having E-coli taking on the gene that made it glow green under fluorescent light. What went wrong during the lab was the outcome or in the lab stated as the efficiency of the about of cells that actually took on the trait. We had a very low outcome in the end but was successful.

References: The lab itself